The EMPHASIS infrastructure is based on previously established national infrastructures in Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Belgium.
Since its inclusion in the ESFRI Roadmap 2016, EMPHASIS has supported
- the financing of plant phenotyping infrastructures through national/regional funding mechanisms,
- applications for inclusion in the national infrastructure roadmap,
- several initiatives that have been formed to establish plant phenotyping at national level.
In addition, several countries are in the process of initiating their national activities and are integrated into the EMPHASIS Council.
Plant Phenotyping in Austria
The Austrian plant phenotyping landscape covers areas of fundamental and applied plant research. From Arabidopsis to trees – from subcellular phenotyping to shoots and roots. The high-throughput plant phenotyping platform at the VBCF PlantS facility is designed for RGB screening of Arabidopsis and is fully integrated in a state-of-the-art phytotron allowing complex environmental simulations. This system is complemented by deep expertise of GMI in phenotypic data analysis and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). At the BOKU several platforms for manual destructive and non-destructive root phenotyping are established. One of those rhizobox type setups is located in a plant growth cabinet equipped with LED illumination and incorporates a hyperspectral camera. The Core Facility Cell Imaging and -Ultrastructure Research and the Mass Spectrometry LAB of the Dept. of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology (University of Vienna) enable organelle stoichiometric analyses. The department also facilitates several modern plant physiology techniques for instance concerningthe measurement of so-called “SPAC” [Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum] including “SRI” [Soil Root Interface]. The University of Innsbruck has facilities for imaging chlorophyll fluorescence fromwhole plants to sub-cellular level, which is used in projects associated with mapping stresses in plants, lichens and alga.
The Austrian Plant Phenotyping Network (APPN), established in 2017, is an Austrian network of biologists, breeders, technology developers, imaging experts, statisticians and bioinformaticians working in the field of plant phenotyping.
The APPN aims to unite the Austrian plant phenotyping community in order to facilitate research collaborations, development of plant phenotyping infrastructure and methodologies, staff training, staff exchange and networking activities. The goal is to increase the visibility and impact of plant phenotyping and to facilitate communication between stakeholders in academia, industry, government, and the general public. The APPN is also very well connected with the Czech and Slovak cross-border plant phenotyping community. The initiative intends to support the EMPHASIS project and to reach a legal status by the end of 2017.
Austrian Plant Phenotyping Network (APPN): www.appn.at
For a small European country as Belgium, it has a lot of plant phenotyping research, scientists and facilities. The plant phenotyping installations in Belgium are very diverse. Some are focused on in-field crop phenotyping using remote sensing technology, like drones, or use ground-based crop phenotyping installations. Others have fully automated high-throughput shoot analysis platforms in controlled conditions, or focusing on root phenotyping with hydroponics and rhizotrones. There are research groups that preform low throughput/deep phenotyping on cellular level and groups that investigate pre-& postharvesting of plant organs, like fruits and vegies. But also automated systems to test plant response to pathogens and modelling virtual experiments, crop performance, rootmodelling and ideotyping we can add to the list of plant phenotyping activities in Belgium.
The BPPN aims to increase visibility and impact of plant phenotyping in Belgium, function as a channel for sharing information, provide support for collaborative projects, organize networking activities, facilitate plant phenotyping training and last but not least link the BPPN to Plant Phenotyping community in Europe though EMPHASIS.
With the mindset of "two heads are better than One" Belgian scientists of academia and industry involved in plant phenotyping came together to discuss the formation of a Belgian Plant Phenotyping Network (BPPN) in the first official BPPN meeting on the 12th of October. Plant researchers from University of Gent, Antwerp, Leuven, Louvain-La-Neuve, Liege, Brussels but also plant scientist of Belgian institutes as VIB, ILVO, CRA-W, PCFruit and VITO expressed their interest in such kind of network. Together they decided to form an all-inclusive network where all whom is involved in plant phenotyping in general, in Belgium, can be a member. Thereby they forming a multidisciplinary network of plant biologists, imaging experts, breeders, modellers and technology developers.
Next steps? The BPPN would like to be more formalized and are now in the process of writing a Memorandum of Understanding (i.e representing a ‘written handshake’), want to set up a website and will organize more networking activities in the future. The BPPN actively supports the EMPHASIS-prep project and has the intention to function as a national node for EMPHASIS in the future.
The research activities in Dept of Food Science, Aarhus University in phenotyping is focussed on deep physiological phenotyping using state of art photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence most in relation to heat stress or combinations of stresses and elevated CO2 on several field crops. We are are part of the EPPN2020 with the facility DynaPheno providing access to combinations of high tech greenhouses, drought spotters for water and nutrient management and a temporary non functional Planteye for 3D analysis. By November 2019 we move to a new location near Aarhus with state of art greenhouses and climate chambers.
Plant Phenotyping in France
Author: Francois Tardieu
Phenome-EMPHASIS develops a versatile, high-throughput infrastructure and a suite of methods for characterising hundreds of genotypes of different species under environmental scenarios of climate changes (e.g. drought, high CO2, high temperatures). The infrastructure consists of (1) four installations in controlled conditions (capacity of >1000 plants each) for in-depth analysis of leaf or root system under ranges of water deficits, CO2 concentration, temperature or biotic interactions (in Montpellier, Dijon, Toulouse and Angers); (2) two field platforms with semi-controlled environments, in particular large rainout-shelters and one free-air carbon enrichment (FACE) system (capacity 800 plots each, in Clermont Ferrand and Blois); (3) three field platforms with higher throughputs (capacity 2000 plots each, in Dijon, Toulouse and Montpellier) for evaluation in normal field conditions. All installations can manipulate and/or control environmental conditions in order to identify well-characterised scenarios. Platforms are equipped with a consistent set of 3D functional imaging techniques, namely detailed imaging of roots and shoots in controlled conditions, canopy imaging with an autonomous 'phenomobile' that captures functional and 3D images of each plot, and drones that image hundreds of plots jointly. Two supporting platforms centralise metabolomic and structural measurements for phenotyping experiments.
Fig. 1. Typical installations and equipment. (i) Rainout shelters near Blois (Arvalis). (ii) Phenomobile equipped with multispectral cameras and LiDARS (Toulouse), (iii) controlled condition platform for measuring architecture, radiation use efficiency and stomatal conductance (Montpellier) (iv) Root imaging (1000s plants, Dijon). (v) Early detection of disease symptoms via fluorescence (Angers)
Phenome-EMPHASIS offers four categories of services at national level (i) A centralized web access, which describes each installation and provides templates for access, (ii) a common information system, progressively deployed in all nodes, which organises phenotypic data for open, joint analyses across installations (FAIR requirements). (iii) Common vectors (e.g. phenomobiles, drones), common imaging device and pipe lines of analysis, for both controlled and field conditions, (iv) Statistical applications for handling large phenomic datasets. These methods and techniques are transferred towards a wide plant community, academic and industrial.
Fig. 2. Methods developed at infrastructure level (i) 3D imaging of a wheat microplot, (ii) virtual canopy made of 3D plants for calculating light interception, (iii) information system for field and platform data, (iv) On line application for outlier identification
Phenome-EMPHASIS involves INRA, Arvalis and Terres Inovia. It is funded till 2023, and is listed on the French roadmap for strategic infrastructures. It is managed by an executive committee, has an institutional board, a scientific advisory board and an industrial advisory board. It organises meetings for a wide community of stakeholders in addition to consortium meetings.
Phenotyping in Germany
Progress in plant and agricultural research is a prerequisite for solving some grand challenges on the global scale in particular to guarantee higher crop yields and plants that are optimized for higher resistance and to cope with environmental stresses. In recent years progress had been made in all relevant scientific topics in plants and plant breeding, leaving plant phenotyping as the major bottleneck. In particular better systematic measurements and high throughput measurements of relevant plant-phenotypes under defined environmental conditions covering from lab to field is a key requirement to bridge the gap between genome an phenome.
Therefore, the federal government sponsored the initiation of the German Plant-Phenotyping Network in 2013 with a significant funding of approx. 36 Mio. Euros. In this network the most relevant key players merged their efforts in order to develop user-oriented and demand driven developments for modern plant phenotyping (technologies and facilities) in a constant dialogue with users from academia and industry. The three partners of this network are the Research Center Jülich (coordination), the Leibnitz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben and Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU) – all bringing in a unique but complementary expertise in both: plant phenotyping science and methodological and technological competences. The wide range of competences of Jülich in developing and operation of phenotyping technologies including in Eco-Physiology and screening is supplemented by the unique competences of Gatersleben (plant gene banking and genetics) and Munich (plant pathology). All sites provide outstanding competences in bioinformatics and data management.
The target of the DPPN project is the development of phenotyping infrastructures and concepts in a dialogue with potential academic and industrial users including technology developers. The scientific validation of the methods and technologies developed in DPPN is via access to those facilities in projects (in particular national, European or global projects). Currently access is provided by the participating centers of DPPN upon user inquiry directly at the respective DPPN sites. After the end of the project phase in 2019 DPPN will be sustained as a non-profit association (DPPN e.V.). So the DPPN-partners will also will stay under one roof in order to foster German plant phenotyping a concerted manner. In general, DPPN was initiated to be open for other relevant German institutions to join in, since there are more competences in plant phenotyping in Germany (in particular the Julius Kühn Institutes, but also at several universities, like e.g. Hochschule Osnabrück, University Hohenheim and University Bonn). However, these other potential players in Germany have not been integrated into the DPPN project but will be able to join an extended German network that will be implemented during the preparatory phase of EMPHASIS.
The Partners of DPPN areFZJ (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Plant Sciences IBG-2),IPK (Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research), and HMGU (Helmholtzzentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health).
Phenotyping in Ireland
Agriculture and the production of food, fodder and timber is a key contribution to the Irish economy. Therefore research directed towards improving grass/fodder, forest, cereal and horticultural crops yields for the dairy, meat, timber, food and brewing industry is a key focus. Due to the unique Irish climate several research groups focus on mitigating plant pathogens and diseases.
SFI is one of our national funders and was very cooperative in helping set up our National Plant Phenotyping Network (PPN-Ireland). They have recently funded several large phenotyping infrastructures, One such example is PICS - Physiology infrastructure for crop stress. €1.2M to UCD (Angela Feechan and Saoirse Tracy) will consist of a high resolution X-ray CT scanner, harvester with NIR analyser, humidity chamber, NO analyser and hyperspectral drone with LIDAR capabilities. PICS will enable biotic and abiotic stresses to be measured simultaneously in the lab and the in the field. A second funded project was Phenomics and future experimental platform, which was funded in 2016. €1.3 M (Jennifer McElwain and Saoirse Tracy). This will consist of state of the art climate controlled growth chambers and a large X-ray CT scanner which is already in place at UCD. UCD is a member of IPPN, so these facilities are available for access to any group globally.
Teagasc the state agriculture and food development authority has a series of research centers distributed across the country. A wide range of crops including; forage, horticultural, combinable, root and forestry are phenotyped across these centers and on commercial farms in controlled environment, glasshouse and field environments. State of the art molecular biology facilities and bioinformatics resources allow the phenotype information to incorporated into breeding programmes using a range of techniques such as marker assisted or genomic selection. The information and resources are utilized either in in-house potato, perennial ryegrass and clover breeding programmes or through collaboration with external breeding programmes.
National Phenotyping Networks
Our National Phenotyping Network is PPN-Ireland. Our committee is made up of members from across the Island of Ireland. We were formally established in June 2016.
Plant phenotyping is emerging as a major area of research in plant biology and agriculture in Italy. Among the many research carried out by Italian institutions, the following are highlighted.
A first research area matches genotype selection and breeding with analysis of phenotypic performances, especially under stress conditions. These studies are carried out: i) at the University Alma Mater of Bologna to map and clone QTLs for drought resistance in maize and wheat; ii) at the Marche Polytechnic University to study phenotyping pipelines for the linkage mapping of domestication traits, specifically addressing fruit breeding; iii) at the University of Basilicata and CNR-Agrobios for early identification of stress response (water and nutrients) through application and validation of image analysis for aboveground and root architecture, respectively; iv) at the University Sant’Anna di Pisa and the Institute for Advanced Studies of Lucca, where a new platform for phenotyping rosette-shaped plants (Phenotiki) was developed.
At the Cereal and Industrial Crop Research Centre of the Council for Agriculture (CREA-CI, Foggia), phenotyping for early vigour, a trait useful for Mediterranean type environments (characterized by early winter rainfalls) was carried out on two experimental field trials with bread and durum wheat cultivars. Using Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) strictly higher-resolution images were captured weekly throughout the vegetative phase of wheat, from emergence to stem elongation stage. The soil cover rate of the crop was estimated by a proprietary software developed in house.
At the Foundation Edmund Mach of San Michele all’Adige and at CNR-Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, the Volatile Compound Facilities allowed direct high-throughput and high-sensitive analysis of volatomes, automatically and non-invasively phenotyping the volatile compound emission (including also semi-volatiles and some plant hormones) of more than 200 plants per day. Research on phenotyping is characterizing activities of several other CNR Institutes.
The X-ray microCT laboratory of the CNR-Institute for agricultural and forest systems in the Mediterranean is carrying out “high resolution” phenotyping of protein-rich seeds, within the Horizon2020 project "Protein2Food" (http://www.protein2food.eu/research-activities/crop-production/). That laboratory is also performing phenotyping of seeds, leaves and stem of hemp plants under the project for the Campania region rural district "Bio-district of Canapa Irpina”.
The CNR-Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology has recently been funded a research (Regione Lombardia, project SPHERA, in collaboration with the regional technology park, PTP) to field phenotype cultivars of durum wheat and soybean for useful traits and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Wheat research undertaken by this same CNR Institute also focuses on single seed descent from 150 landraces, stored at the Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources Seed Bank. This material is phenotyped within the flagship project INTEROMICS using the scanalyzer 3-D System (LemnaTec) phenomic platform at Metapontum-AgroBios Research Centre of ALSIA-Basilicata. This same facility, which is used as a hub for most of the phenotyping activities in Italy, including greenhouses, conveyor belts and image chambers allowing observations from various angles; optional filter/sensor in non-visible spectrum (NIR and Fluorescence); and plant weight combined to an accurate water dosage. The facility also provides end-users analysis of nutrients and biostimulants effects, screening of mutants lines and crosses for new phenotypes, and impact of root biomass, root distribution and water uptake (index of plant activity) in water stress resistance.
The Joint Research Unit (JRU) denominated Italian Plant Phenotyping Network (PHEN-ITALY) was established in 2016. The JRU is coordinated by CNR and gathers people and research facilities actively working on plant phenotyping. The main infrastructure is centered on the high throughput phenotyping platform of ALSIA-Metapontum Agrobios and associated CNR Research Unit. Eleven universities and research organizations are members of the JRU, which represents the national node of the preparatory action for the development of the European Infrastructure for Multi-scale Plant Phenotyping And Simulation for Food and Security in Changing Climate (EMPHASIS-PREP).
ALSIA - Agency For Development And Innovation In Agriculture of the Region Basilicata (Metapontum Agrobios)
CNR – National Research Council
CREA -Council for Agricultural Research and Analysis of Agricultural Economics
UNITUS -Tuscia University
UNIVPM -Marche Polytechnic University
UNIBO - ALMA MATER STUDIORUM – University of Bologna
UNIBAS -University of Basilicata
SSUP - Sant'Anna - School of Advanced Studies
IAM-CIHEAM - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari
UNIBA - University of Bari Aldo Moro
UNIPD - University of Padova
FEM – Foundation Edmund Mach
Rick van de Zedde
Wageningen University & Research
+31 31 317 480156
- Wageningen University (WU) / Wageningen Research (WR) (www.phenomics.nl)
- University Utrecht (https://www.uu.nl/en/organisation/department-of-biology)
- NIOO-KNAW (https://nioo.knaw.nl/en)
- Nijmegen (http://www.ru.nl/plantecology)
- UvA (http://sils.uva.nl)
Plant Phenotyping in The Netherlands
Research groups at the key partners are currently studying the behaviour of plants at different levels: from model and individual plants to the growth of crops in climate rooms, greenhouses and on the field. Combining all knowledge, expertise and facilities on plant phenomics into one single national platform, named PhenomicsNL - the Dutch Plant Phenotyping Network - will speed up developments. A targeted Scopus analysis in the period 2011-2016 on key words ‘plant*’ and ‘phenotyp*’ shows that WU has a leading position with 262 publications in The Netherlands, 4th in the EU and 6th world-wide.
The partners have established several public-private partnerships and has been a partner in notable European initiatives such as SPICY, Phenomen-ALL and the European Plant Phenotyping Network (EPPN). And also in new programmes/ on-going initiatives, WR is partner in this ESFRI project EMPHASIS-PREP, member in theInternational Plant Phenotyping Network (IPPN) and in the on-goingEPPN2020 in which WU offers transnational access to its existing climate-room based plant phenotyping facility ‘Phenovator’.
On the other hand is WR involved in several public-private partnership projects in which phenotyping technology is developed/ exploited:
Left: Disease detection module, with 3D TOF and hyperspectral imaging cameras, designed to be placed in front of a tractor for field phenotyping, designed specifically to detect potato plants on field infected with diseases.
Mid: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an advanced 3D LIDAR sensor underneath. Research access for external partners to this drone is offered through Shared Research Facilities @ WUR.
Right: An automated robotic system to collect leaf samples of seedlings in the breeding process for further processing by sequencers to determine the DNA profile of new varieties.
National roadmap for infrastructure
In The Netherlands ‘plant phenotyping’ has been accepted on the Dutch NWO Roadmap for Large-Scale Scientific Infrastructure with the Netherlands Plant Eco-phenotyping Centre (NPEC), selected based on the compatibility with strategic priorities, such as the Dutch National Research Agenda, the top sectors and the European roadmap for large-scale research facilities (ESFRI).
NPEC is a partnership between Utrecht University and Wageningen University & Research, and also includes affiliated groups from Leiden University, NIOO-KNAW and the University of Amsterdam. This future facility will provide scientists with next generation growth platforms to enable research designed to unravel to the interactions between plants, their microbiomes and the environment. These interactions determine the growth, the health and traits – the phenotype – of plants. More info: www.wur.eu/npec
Prof. Dr. Bogdan Wolko
Plant Phenotyping in Poland
Plant phenotyping in Poland is done at universities and at research institutes belonging to the Polish Academy of Sciences or to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; large experiments are also performed by breeding and seed companies and by the Research Center for Cultivar Testing (COBORU). A recent survey has shown that phenotyping is carried out mostly by conventional methods. However, Polish plant scientists have successfully participated in EPPN calls for access to image phenotyping platforms, which resulted in a number of high-throughput experiments. Phenotyping is mostly done in projects studying genetic diversity, agrotechnical factors, and plant reactions to biotic or abiotic stresses, and is financed by national and international projects. More than half of survey respondents declared carrying out molecular-level quantitative measurements (of proteins, metabolites etc.) in addition to classical phenotyping with respect to morphological or phenological traits. All respondents expressed the opinion that the level of phenotyping techniques could be improved by international collaboration in this area. There is no formal plant phenotyping network in Poland yet. However, R&D projects involving large-scale phenotyping experiments have been conducted by consortia composed of several tightly collaborating scientific and commercial partners.
Biological Research Center Jibou
Plant Phenotyping in Romania
In Romania there is a real potential for future growth of phenotyping studies, as many research entities are interested in plant research topics:
Universities: 13 (12 public, 1 private), National Institutes for Research and Development: 9, Research Centers & Stations: 5, Research Groups within commercial sector: 2
However, modern phenotyping is only rarely used in Romania and most of the studies are performed on the frame of international collaborations!
In present phenotypic studies are being conducted at: Biological Research Center Jibou (Interactive effects of drought and salt stress on plant development in potentially salt resistant landraces of tomatoes); Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca (The research group of Prof. Rackosy Elena is interested in obtaining resistant forms of potatoes using somatic hybridisation); Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iasi (The research group is focused on ecotoxicologic evaluation, bio monitoring and bioremediation of quality of environmental factors).
At Biological Research Center Jibou there are the following facilities for phenotyping studies:
- Monitoring PAM Fluorometer for Long-term Monitoring of Photosynthesis
- Open FluorCam System for combined multispectral and kinetic fluorescence imaging
- PAM 2500 High-performance Field and Laboratory Fluorometer
- Fluorometer FL 3500, Sensitive head, P 700 module
- Flow-through WATER-PAMChlorophyll Fluorometer
- LAI-2200C Plant Canopy Analyzer
- ULM 500 Universal Light Meter
- Light Meter VLX – 3W, for PAR measurements
- UVA, UVB meter SpectroSense
- FytoScope FS 130 Growth Chambers
- LI-3000C Portable Leaf Area Meter
The main issues that hinders the development of phenotypic studies in Romania are the lack of predictability in time and amount of the financial support from governmental or private entities.
Future perspectives for development of plant phenotyping in our country could be:
- Raising awareness of the importance of the field among interested ministries (research, education, agriculture and environment)
- Establishment of research clusters around existing poles of knowledge
- Introduction of these techniques on student curriculum
- Facilitation of Romanian researchers access to existing infrastructure abroad
At IRTA, research areas of application of phenotyping technologies focus on improving crop adaptation to climate change under Mediterranean conditions and enhancing crop efficiency in the use of resources. High-throughput field phenotyping tools, based on the capture of images at different spectrum ranges, are used to decipher phenotype-genotype relationships and identifying genomic regions related to stress tolerance, resilience and input efficiency. New methods for quantifying water balances, determining crop physiological status as well as other relevant plant traits are being developed.
The team of crop ecophysiology at the Faculty of Biology of the University of Barcelona is working in the development of new avenues for phenotyping, with special emphasis in field phenotyping and low cost approaches. Special emphasis has been given to the use of RGB images and ground as well as aerial platforms, not just to assess crop growth and senescence but also for other purposes such as early ground covering or ear counting. Besides that, thermal and multispectral imaging are the main categories of sensors deployed. In addition the signatures of different stable isotopes are regularly analyzed to assess different objectives (grain yield, water status, ear photosynthesis, root functioning).
IRTA, Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology), (www.irta.cat).
Universitat de Barcelona, Crop Ecophysiology Group Section of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona. www.researchgate.net/.../Integrative-Crop-Ecophysiology-... -
In spite not a specific network for Plant Phenotyping has been created, many research networks exist in areas related to plant phenotyping where advances in the topic may be discussed, like ‘Sociedad Española de Genética’, ‘Sociedad Española de Fisiología Vegetal’, the FiRCMe network (Yield Physiology and Quality for cereal breeding), as well as a strong tradition of collaborative research.
General opinion about the specific-country needs (prepared by J.L.Araus)
What is considered strategic is the need to developing flexible, high throughput platforms for field phenotyping. Specific needs to phenotype quality traits and the evaluation of biotic stresses may need the implementation of special platforms and even indoor facilities. However, the general perception is that there is no need at the country level of a high throughput indoor facility. Specific needs may be covered with ongoing collaborations with already existing platforms abroad.
The plant phenotyping landscape in Sweden
In general, high-quality plant growth facilities are available in Sweden, but high-throughput phenotyping equipment is mostly lacking. Several new facilities for plant cultivation and phenotyping have been established in Sweden lately and during the last 5 years the universities in Stockholm and the SLU in Alnarp. Others have updated their facilities, especially with LED lights and more advanced cameras and sensors for phenotyping. There is also a recent trend with adaptions to larger plants such as crops and trees in custom-made facilities, whereas, off-the-shelf cabinets for the model plant Arabidopsis have been installed as part of the facility services in many places. As an example of new, advanced climate chambers, the Biotron at SLU Alnarp lacks high-throughput phenotyping but offers very precise climate and light conditions also for large plants and with some chambers equipped with wavelength adjustable LED lights.
An automated phenotyping platform for GM poplar trees is currently under construction at the Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC) and will be ready by 2018. The facility will have space for 280 trees that circulate on a conveyor belt and are fully monitored regularly (growth, leaf area, possibly equipped with IR camera and fluorescence and/or multispectral scanner).
Several efforts are ongoing to improve field phenotyping efforts in Sweden including manipulations in field. For example, the nationally coordinated infrastructure SITES (www.fieldsites.se) is currently investing in new drones and imaging equipment for their field stations. In field studies, remote sensing with UAVs and satellite images are becoming increasingly popular for use in agriculture due to reduced costs of obtaining the data and availability of software for analysis. Low cost commercial drones can be mounted with various cameras such as RGB, NDVI or multispectral sensors. The RGB cameras are the most affordable option albeit with some limitations compared to other sensors. The images from drones can be processed inthe open source software opendronemap or other commercial software. Using satellite images from Sweden (or other countries), CropSAT quantifies the variation in the biomass for a given area. This data can be freely downloaded from the website to the on-farm equipment for variable spraying of fertilizer in the field. Thus, low cost phenotyping both in the controlled conditions and in the field is a promising resource for effective analysis of agronomic traits in crops grown in Sweden or elsewhere.
National and Nordic Networks
Sweden participates also in relevant networks such as the Nordic Plant Phenotyping Network (NPPN), which facilitates collaboration between academy and industry (technology providers, breeding companies) within plant phenotyping. In addition, Sweden participates in the NOVA network grant for PhD training, ”Phenotyping technologies in plant-environment interactions”. In 2018 the NordForsk-funded university hub NordPlant started. NordPlant focuses on plant phenomics and climate modelling for future crops and trees in the Nordic countries (www.nordplant.org).
Plant Phenotyping in Switzerland
The focus of Agroscope’s plant phenotyping activities is the functional characterization of germplasm of the main crops cultivated in Switzerland. Our research aims at the identification of genotypes which are adapted to our soil and our climate, are resistant to disease and support an environmentally sound production of high-quality plant products for human consumption or for feed for livestock. It also seeks to meet the numerous quality criteria required by the market, the development of an increasingly healthier diet, and to increase the efficiency of food chains and the sustainability of agricultural systems.
At the moment our phenotyping activities rely on the conventional assessments that Agroscope has been doing for several decades and also UAVs equipped with RGB, multispectral (red, green, near IR), and thermal infrared (7.5-13.5 µm) cameras. We recently got funds for a hyperspectral camera (475-875 nm) that we already ordered and we expect to start using it during the advanced growth stages of summer crops and for the 2017-2018 season of winter crops. We also started the construction of a small portable cart to carry sensors for proximal sensing. The sensors used with the cart include the same sensors that we use with the UAVs and also thermometers, and cameras for 3D reconstructions (time of flight and stereo technologies).
Our plant phenotyping activities during the next two years will be conducted in the frame of the following main projects:
- Evaluations of varieties and production techniques: https://www.agroscope.admin.ch/agroscope/de/home/themen/pflanzenbau/ackerbau/forschungsprojekte/sorten-anbautechnik-mais.html
- Evaluation of performance and quality of genotypes and field crops with tools of the digital economy (Internal strategic project of Agroscope).
- SOLACE: Horizon 2020 EU project from 2018 to 2022.
Currently there is no national plant phenotyping network. The most similar to a national network are the experimental networks of Agroscope that cover the entire Swiss territory.
Contact person ( University of Nottingham )
Plant Phenotyping in the UK
Phenotyping in the United Kingdom spans a range of environments, organs and scales. Both root and shoot phenotyping tools are in everyday use, and vary from custom built laboratory and glasshouse facilities to large scale, commercially sourced, glasshouse and field systems. Together, these are capable of recovering traits across a wide range of species and growth stages, from individual Arabidopsis seedlings to field plots of mature wheat.
Specific phenotyping facilities include:
- large scale glasshouse phenotyping (Lemnatec, PSI, Phenospex) at the National Plant Phenotyping Centre, Aberystwyth
- crop phenotyping via a boom system, lean sensor network and mobile platform at the John Innes Centre, Norwich
- 2D and 3D root phenotyping, including X-ray analysis of roots grown in soil, at the Hounsfield Facility, University of Nottingham
- gantry-based field phenotyping incorporating a variety of 2D and 3D imaging modalities at Rothamsted Research
- chlorophyll fluorescence and multispectral imaging of shoots and electrical impedance tomography of roots at the Wolfson Centre for Disease Phenomics, Sheffield
- a managed drought facility, glasshouse ground and aircraft-based phenotyping at NIAB, Cambridge
- a new phenotyping glasshouse with Lemnatec sensor gantry, and new sensor development and Agri-informatics lab, both linked to soil research facilities at Cranfield University.
A strong technology development community experienced in the production and distribution of phenotyping hardware and software backs up the UK’s physical resources. Of particular interest are image and data analysis software tools, novel sensors and sensor integration, agricultural robotics and lean imaging hardware.
The UK phenotyping community is linked via a recently announced network: PhenomUK. PhenomUK is jointly funded by the UK Research Councils’ Technology Touching Life programme and aims to bring researchers from the engineering, physical and life sciences together to further develop phenotyping technologies and prepare the UK to play a full role in EMPHASIS.